Survey on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces below 10 GHz

Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a programmable structure that can be used to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves by changing the electric and magnetic properties of the surface. By placing these surfaces in an environment, the properties of radio channels can be controlled. This opens up new opportunities to improve the performance of wireless systems. In this paper, the basic operation of antenna array and metasurface based RIS is described. While the current long term (6G) research on RIS often prioritizes very high frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz, this paper puts emphasis rather on operating frequencies below 10 GHz which promise a much faster to market track for RIS applications. For this purpose, review of the literature on the use of RIS in wireless communication applications operating below 10 GHz frequency band is provided.