Regulatory challenges and implications of the European electronic communications code (EECC) for local mobile communication network business

Regulatory provisions pose legal constraints on deploying mobile communication networks and related services. Local 5G and upcoming 6G networks, particularly those that are independent of the big mobile network operators (MNOs), face new challenges due to the incoherent harmonization and implementation of the regulatory provisions and the standby approach undertaken by many EU member countries. This paper analyses the European Electronic Communications Code (EECC) Directive from the perspective of local mobile communication networks by combining business model innovation and legitimacy approaches in an ecosystemic context. Based on the analysis, we recommend regulators focus on terminology, spectrum management, access and interconnection, security and privacy, and competition when enabling local mobile communications business.