Radio Localization and Mapping With Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

5G radio for millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and beyond5G concepts at 0.1–1 THz can exploit angle and delay measurements for localization through an increased bandwidth and large antenna arrays, but they are limited in terms of blockage caused by obstacles. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are seen as a transformative technology that can control the physical propagation environment in which they are embedded by passively reflecting radio waves in preferred directions and actively sensing this environment in receive and transmit modes. While such RISs have mainly been intended for communication purposes, they can provide great benefits in terms of performance, energy consumption, and cost for localization and mapping. These benefits as well as associated challenges are the main topics of this article.