On-body Cavity-Backed Low-UWB Antenna for Capsule Localization
The paper presents a novel antenna operating at the lower UWB band (3.75–4.25 GHz), defined originally in IEEE 802.15.6 standard for Body Area Networks (BAN) applications. The proposed antenna is designed for biomedical application, wireless capsule endoscopy localization. In other words, the concerned application is dedicated to track a capsule, by means of an external device, swallowed by the patient to provide captured images of the Small Intestine (SI), essential part of the GastroIntestinal (GI) tract, and transfer them in real-time to the external device. In this context, antenna with and without cavity-backed structures, are presented and compared with the requirements for a receiving antenna in terms of directivity and bandwidth coverage in question. It was revealed that the cavity approach improved the antenna gain up to 8 dBi, at the 4 GHz center frequency, compared to 6 dBi without the cavity presence. Simulations were carried out using CST Microwave Studio, and the results were validated by measurements in proximity to human body. The antenna safety issue was assessed with CST SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) calculation, in compliance with IEEE/IEC 62704-1 standard. Results showed a maximum SAR of 0.112 W/kg and 0.005 W/kg at 4 mm and 30 mm antenna-skin distance, in the range of the SAR limit guidelines defined by safety standards. The cavity-backed antenna ability to penetrate the human tissues, to reach the small intestine layer was studied by means of CST voxel model and compared to a multi-layer model emulating the dielectric properties of the human tissues at 4 GHz. This analysis was conducted using power flow results and completed by the power field probes at the several tissue interfaces.