Massive MIMO With Radio Stripes for Indoor Wireless Energy Transfer
Radio frequency wireless energy transfer (WET) is a promising solution for powering autonomous Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. In this work we leverage energy beamforming for powering multiple user equipments (UEs) with stringent energy harvesting (EH) demands in an indoor distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output system. Based on semi-definite programming successive convex approximation (SCA) and maximum ratio transmission (MRT) techniques we derive optimal and sub-optimal precoders aimed at minimizing the radio stripes’ transmit power while exploiting information of the power transfer efficiency of the EH circuits at the UEs. Moreover we propose an analytical framework to assess and control the electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation exposure in the considered indoor scenario. Numerical results show that i) the EMF radiation exposure can be more easily controlled at higher frequencies at the cost of a higher transmit power consumption ii) training is not a very critical factor for the considered indoor system iii) MRT/SCA-based precoders are particularly appealing when serving a small number of UEs thus especially suitable for implementation in a time domain multiple access (TDMA) scheduling framework and iv) TDMA is more efficient than spatial domain multiple access (SDMA) when serving a relatively small number of UEs. Results suggest that additional boosting performance strategies are needed to increase the overall system efficiency thus making the technology viable in practice.