Energy Beamforming for RF Wireless Power Transfer With Dynamic Metasurface Antennas

Radio frequency (RF) wireless power transfer (WPT) is a promising technology for charging the Internet of Things. Practical RF-WPT systems usually require energy beamforming (EB), which can compensate for the severe propagation loss by directing beams toward the devices. The EB flexibility depends on the transmitter architecture, existing a trade-off between cost/complexity and degrees of freedom. Thus, simpler architectures such as dynamic metasurface antennas (DMAs) are gaining attention. Herein, we consider an RF-WPT system with a transmit DMA for meeting the energy harvesting requirements of multiple devices and formulate an optimization problem for the minimum-power design. First, we provide a mathematical model to capture the frequency-dependant signal propagation effect in the DMA architecture. Next, we propose a solution based on semi-definite programming and alternating optimization. Results show that a DMA-based structure can outperform a fully-digital implementation and that the required transmit power decreases with the antenna array size, while it increases and remains almost constant with frequency in DMA and FD, respectively.