Joint Access and Fronthaul Radio Resource Allocation in PD-NOMA-Based 5G Networks Enabling Dual Connectivity and CoMP

In this paper, fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks under three promising technologies, namely, dual connectivity, coordinated multi-point transmission (CoMP), and power domain non orthogonal multiple access (PD-NOMA) are investigated. The main aim is to maximize the downlink energy efficiency (EE) by using both millimeter wave (mmW) and micro wave (μW) links in access and fronthaul, while employing CoMP and PD-NOMA. In this regard, joint access and fronthaul radio resource allocation for a downlink heterogeneous cloud radio access network is considered. The proposed optimization is a mixed integer non-convex problem with a high computational complexity solution, and hence, the alternate search method based on a successive convex approximation approach using fractional programming is exploited. Furthermore, the convergence of the proposed iterative resource allocation method is proved and its computational complexity is investigated. As the numerical results show, via dual connectivity through receiving signals from both mmW and μW transmitters, the system EE is improved by approximately 50%, in contrast to using only μW subcarriers (e.g., as in local thermal equilibrium). In addition, by applying both PD-NOMA and CoMP technologies on the μW subcarriers, the EE of the system increases by approximately 45%.