Design and measurement of a 5G mmW mobile backhaul transceiver at 28 GHz
High throughput and ultra low latency are the main requirements for fifth generation (5G) mobile broadband communications. Densely populated urban environments require utilization of previously underutilized millimeter wave frequency spectrum for higher data rates. The Ka-band, previously used in satellite applications, is of particular interest to terrestrial 5G mobile networks. New radio solutions are required for these frequencies, such as multiple wireless base stations organized in small cells and highly directional antennas to compensate for higher path loss. Wireless backhaul is predicted to be the most cost-effective and versatile solution to connect 5G base stations to the core network. Wireless backhaul enables flexible and easy installation of 5G base stations in ad hoc networks, supporting large crowd gatherings such as concerts and sports events. In this article, we present an architecture of a wireless backhaul transceiver, which operates on the 26.5–29.5-GHz band. The architecture described in this paper was implemented, and the performance of the receiver (Rx) array has been measured. We also present over-the-air antenna array measurement results using the Rx. The measurement results show that unequal Rx channel gains and antenna gains do not have a significant effect on the shape of the main lobe of the radiation pattern. We have measured a coherence gain of 2.7 dB from two Rx channels that is close to the theoretical value of 3.0 dB. We have achieved a conducted Rx EVM of better than 2% using a 100-MHz 16-QAM modulated signal at 26.5 GHz.