User Influence on Polarization Characteristics in Off-Body Channels
This paper investigates the impact of the user’s body on wearable antenna radiation characteristics and the consequent effects on the off-body channel, with the focus on the polarization aspect. The impact on antenna gain and polarization is analyzed for different antenna placements and separations from the body, based on electromagnetic simulations with numerical phantoms at 3, 4 and 5 GHz. Results show a strong influence of the body on the antenna efficiency, gain, and polarization. The excess losses due to body-shadowing suppress the antenna radiation behind the body by more than 20 dB, while its polarization changes from vertical in free space, to an elliptical one when placed on the body. The obtained radiation characteristics are then employed for off-body channel simulations using a geometrybased polarized channel model, which employs an analytic mobility model for wearable antennas based on Fourier series. The antenna rotation due to changes in user’s posture is seen as one of the main sources of offbody channel degradation. The polarization mismatch losses imposed by antennas’ physical misalignment, are observed to yield periodic fades of the Line-of-Sight component, with more than 30 dB drops in the received power level.