The Effect of Drop Shape, Sensing Volume and Raindrop Size Statistics to the Scattered Field on 300 GHz

Scattering and attenuation properties of rain using various drop models are calculated using Mie theory, the T-matrix method and numerical technique respectively. Ellipsoidal and oblate drops use the axis ratio of raindrops reported in literature. Scattering are presented both for small volumes containing a single drop and for large volumes with multiple drops in which the statistics of drop size distribution need to be taken into account. The angular dependence of scattering, absorption and scattering cross sections and polarization ratios are investigated. For single scattering the angular dependence and cross sections of nonspherical drops differed from those of a spherical drop. Differences between ellipsoid and oblate drops were minimal. Drop shape affected the polarization mostly at 40–140 degree detection angles. The averaged linear attenuation and rain induced cross channel signal were studied. Attenuation was close to the ITU-R.838 model and in the same order of magnitude as the attenuation due to atmospheric moisture. The cross channel signal was calculated as a function of rain rate and transmitter/receiver angle. Vertical polarization was observed to produce a higher cross channel signal than horizontal polarization. It was concluded that drop shape is not an important factor at 300 GHz due to small drops dominating the scattering signal. Overall, the results showed that in single scattering, the ellipsoid is a good approximation for raindrops and that for large volumes, a spherical drop approximation and a Mie solution may be sufficient at frequencies of 300 GHz and higher.