Photoplethysmographic measurements on clinical patients (>65 y) and healthy cohorts between ages of 18—75 y

The biomedical information on different indexes like arterial elasticity index (AEI), arterial age (AA) is used in many cases. However, they applicability for diseases earlier prediction like arteriosclerosis (AS) is seldom applied. Many illnesses are becoming common, especially cardiovascular disorders (CVD) among elderly people, and in females. It is predicted that the negative impacts of AS on young people can be greater than on the elderly people in the long run because of sedentary lifestyle. Degenerative changes in the arteries have many causes in addition to the lifestyle. Arterial elasticity (AE) would provide a direct indicator for cardiovascular healthiness and predict AS. AE can be challenging in the cases of elderly, but also in the case of the young persons whose endothelial functions have been earlier very good. The vessel properties would be important to know for characterization of both arterial diseases and the development of reliable devices. Photoplethysmography (PPG), and especially its response pulse wave decomposition, envelope analysis, and its second order derivative (SDPPG) open the new health information for clinics. PPG signals are correlated with the alterations in blood pressure, blood flow, arterial elasticity, and health indexes. Exposure of human to physical exercise has been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with risk factors and heart failure. Exercise has been shown to be protective to cardiovascular disease. In addition according to this study, the exact mathematical solution for the pulse wave analysis has be replaced by numerical analysis method. In addition, a probability density function and a coherence function suits well to the inherent resting PPG process, and giving some intrinsic properties of the arterial pulsation phenomena.