Optimized Deployment of Millimeter Wave Networks for In-venue Regions with Stochastic Users’ Orientation
Millimeter wave (mmW) communication is a promising solution for providing high-capacity wireless network access. However, the benefits of mmW are limited by the fact that the channel between a mmW access point and the user equipment can stochastically change due to severe blockage of mmW links by obstacles such as the human body. Thus, one main challenge of mmW network coverage is to enable directional line-of-sight links between access points and mobile devices. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for optimizing mmW network coverage within hotspots and in-venue regions, while being cognizant of the body blockage of the network’s users. In the studied model, the locations of potential access points and users are assumed as predefined parameters while the orientation of the users is assumed to be stochastic. Hence, a joint stochastic access point placement and beam steering problem subjected to stochastic users’ body blockage is formulated, under desired network coverage constraints. Then, a greedy algorithm is introduced to find an approximation solution for the joint deployment and assignment problem using a new “size constrained weighted set cover” approach. A closed-form expression for the ratio between the optimal solution and approximate one (resulting from the greedy algorithm) is analytically derived. The proposed algorithm is simulated for three in-venue regions: the meeting room in the Alumni Assembly Hall of Virginia Tech, an airport gate, and one side of a stadium football. The simulation results show that, in order to guarantee network coverage for different in-venue regions, the greedy algorithm uses at most three more access points (APs) compared to the optimal solution. The results also show that, due to the use of the additional APs, the greedy algorithm will yield a network coverage up to 11.7% better than the optimal, AP-minimizing solution.