Optical Studies of Nanodiamond-Tissue Interaction
In this work, several optical-spectroscopic methods have been used to visualize and investigate the penetration of diamond nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes (3–150 nm), surface structures and fluorescence properties into the animal skin in vitro. Murine skin samples have been treated with nanodiamond (ND) water suspensions and studied using optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). An analysis of the optical properties of the used nanodiamonds (NDs) enables the selection of optimal optical methods or their combination for the study of nanodiamond–skin interaction. Among studied NDs, particles of 100 nm in nominal size were shown to be appropriate for multimodal imaging using all three methods. All the applied NDs were able to cross the skin barrier and penetrate the different layers of the epidermis to finally arrive in the hair follicle niches. The results suggest that NDs have the potential for multifunctional applications utilizing multimodal imaging.