Metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS<sub>2</sub> via contactless chemical doping
Much effort has been made to modify the properties of transition metal dichalcogenide layers via their environment as a route to new functionalization. However it remains a challenge to induce large electronic changes without chemically altering the layer or compromising its two-dimensionality. Here a non-invasive technique is used to shift the chemical potential of monolayer MoS2 through p- and n-type doping of graphene (Gr) which remains a well-decoupled 2D substrate. With the intercalation of oxygen (O) under Gr a nearly rigid Fermi level shift of 0.45 eV in MoS2 is demonstrated whereas the intercalation of europium (Eu) induces a metal–insulator transition in MoS2 accompanied by a giant band gap reduction of 0.67 eV. Additionally the effect of the substrate charge on 1D states within MoS2 mirror-twin boundaries (MTBs) is explored. It is found that the 1D nature of the MTB states is not compromised even when MoS2 is made metallic. Furthermore with the periodicity of the 1D states dependent on substrate-induced charging and depletion the boundaries serve as chemical potential sensors functional up to room temperature.