Joint Design of Long-Term Base Station Activation and Short-Term Beamforming for Green Wireless Networks

Base station (BS) activation is a widely-used approach to alleviate the system power cost for device maintenance. However, frequently switching on/off BSs may also introduce extra power and signaling costs, which motivates us to limit the BS switching frequency when performing BS activation. To address this, we study a problem of joint long-term BS activation and short-term beamforming (J-LTBA-STBF) in a network where multiple multi-antenna BSs cooperatively serve multiple single-antenna users. LTBA means that each BS’s active/inactive switching frequency is properly controlled to yield relatively stable BS-user association and limited switching power, while STBF lies in that due to the low cost of refreshing beamformers, the transmit beamformers are allowed to be updated frequently to maximally lower the transmit power. Following the idea, two efficient algorithms are designed, according to the data amount they request to start running, to optimize the active BSs and the BS transmit beamformers in multiple adjacent time slices. Consequently, the transmit, maintenance and switching powers can be well balanced to facilitate power-efficient communications. Numerical results validate the efficacies of the algorithms.