Hyperspectral monitor of soil chromium contaminant based on deep learning network model in the Eastern Junggar coalfield
In China, over 10% of cultivated land is polluted by heavy metals, which can affect crop growth, food safety and human health. Therefore, how to effectively and quickly detect soil heavy metal pollution has become a critical issue. This study provides a novel data preprocessing method that can extract vital information from soil hyperspectra and uses different classification algorithms to detect levels of heavy metal contamination in soil. In this experiment, 160 soil samples from the Eastern Junggar Coalfield in Xinjiang were employed for verification, including 143 noncontaminated samples and 17 contaminated soil samples. Because the concentration of chromium in the soil exists in trace amounts, combined with the fact that spectral characteristics are easily influenced by other types of impurity in the soil, the evaluation of chromium concentrations in the soil through hyperspectral analysis is not satisfactory. To avoid this phenomenon, the pretreatment method of this experiment includes a combination of second derivative and data enhancement (DA) approaches. Then, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (KNN) and deep neural network (DNN) algorithms are used to create the discriminant models. The accuracies of the DA-SVM, DA-KNN and DA-DNN models were 95.61%, 95.62% and 96.25%, respectively. The results of this experiment demonstrate that soil hyperspectral technology combined with deep learning can be used to instantly monitor soil chromium pollution levels on a large scale. This research can be used for the management of polluted areas and agricultural insurance applications.