Health-aware food recommendation system with dual attention in heterogeneous graphs

Recommender systems (RS) have been increasingly applied to food and health. However, challenges still remain, including the effective incorporation of heterogeneous information and the discovery of meaningful relationships among entities in the context of food and health recommendations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel framework, the Health-aware Food Recommendation System with Dual Attention in Heterogeneous Graphs (HFRS-DA), for unsupervised representation learning on heterogeneous graph-structured data. HFRS-DA utilizes an attention technique to reconstruct node features and edges and employs a dual hierarchical attention mechanism for enhanced unsupervised learning of attributed graph representations. HFRS-DA addresses the challenge of effectively leveraging the heterogeneous information in the graph and discovering meaningful semantic relationships between entities. The framework analyses recipe components and their neighbours in the heterogeneous graph and can discover popular and healthy recipes, thereby promoting healthy eating habits. We compare HFRS-DA using the Allrecipes dataset and find that it outperforms all the related methods from the literature. Our study demonstrates that HFRS-DA enhances the unsupervised learning of attributed graph representations, which is important in scenarios where labelled data is scarce or unavailable. HFRS-DA can generate node embeddings for unused data effectively, enabling both inductive and transductive learning.