FastAL: Fast Evaluation Module for Efficient Dynamic Deep Active Learning Using Broad Learning System

State-of-the-art Active Learning (AL) methods often encounter challenges associated with a hysteretic learning process and an expensive data sampling mechanism. The former implies that data selection in the ( i+1 )-th round is solely based on the learned model’s results in the i -th round. The latter involves using model inference to calculate data value (e.g., uncertainty estimation based on model inference), which can be cumbersome, particularly when working with large datasets or Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). To address these challenges, we propose FastAL, an efficient and dynamic deep AL framework. Our approach includes an efficient method for calculating data value from the frequency domain perspective, generating multiple candidates. Then, we introduce the Fast Evaluation Module, which directly calculates each candidate’s contribution to future model training and selects the best options. In addition, current AL methods, particularly those based on uncertainty, are susceptible to data bias, which implies that selected data may not represent the original unlabeled data adequately. To alleviate this issue, we propose the De-similar Module, which removes partially similar data. The above three modules are model-agnostic and thus can be seamlessly integrated into any Active Learning framework. We conducted rigorous experiments on various benchmark datasets to validate our approach’s effectiveness. Our results demonstrate that FastAL outperforms other state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin, including those based on uncertainty, diversity, and expected model change.