Emerging Technologies and Platforms for the Immunodetection of Multiple Biochemical Markers in Osteoarthritis Research and Therapy
Biomarkers, especially biochemical markers, are important in osteoarthritis (OA) research, clinical trials, and drug development and have potential for more extensive use in therapeutic monitoring. However, they have not yet had any significant impact on disease diagnosis and follow-up in a clinical context. Nevertheless, the development of immunoassays for the detection and measurement of biochemical markers in OA research and therapy is an active area of research and development. The evaluation of biochemical markers representing low-grade inflammation or extracellular matrix turnover may permit OA prognosis and expedite the development of personalized treatment tailored to fit particular disease severities. However, currently detection methods have failed to overcome specific hurdles such as low biochemical marker concentrations, patient-specific variation, and limited utility of single biochemical markers for definitive characterization of disease status. These challenges require new and innovative approaches for development of detection and quantification systems that incorporate clinically relevant biochemical marker panels. Emerging platforms and technologies that are already on the way to implementation in routine diagnostics and monitoring of other diseases could potentially serve as good technological and strategic examples for better assessment of OA. State-of-the-art technologies such as advanced multiplex assays, enhanced immunoassays, and biosensors ensure simultaneous screening of a range of biochemical marker targets, the expansion of detection limits, low costs, and rapid analysis. This paper explores the implementation of such technologies in OA research and therapy. Application of novel immunoassay-based technologies may shed light on poorly understood mechanisms in disease pathogenesis and lead to the development of clinically relevant biochemical marker panels. More sensitive and specific biochemical marker immunodetection will complement imaging biomarkers and ensure evidence-based comparisons of intervention efficacy. We discuss the challenges hindering the development, testing, and implementation of new OA biochemical marker assays utilizing emerging multiplexing technologies and biosensors.