Covertness and Secrecy Study in Untrusted Relay-Assisted D2D Networks

This article investigates the covertness and secrecy of wireless communications in an untrusted relay-assisted device-to-device (D2D) network consisting of a full-duplex base station (BS), a user equipment (UE), and an untrusted relay \(R\). For the covertness, we attempt to prevent Willie from detecting the very existence of communications via a D2D link from UE to R and cellular link from R to BS, while for the secrecy, we aim to prevent the untrusted relay from eavesdropping the UE message. To explore the fundamental covertness and secrecy in such a network, we first provide theoretical modelings for the average minimum detection error rate of Willie, and the average covert/secrecy rate from UE to BS under the underlay and overlay modes, respectively. Based on these models, th we further explore the optimal power control at UE, R, and BS to achieve the average covert rate maximization (MCR) for UE with the constraints of covertness and security requirements under the underlay mode. We also identify the optimal transmit powers and the optimal spectrum partition factor for MCR under the overlay mode. Finally, the exhaust searching method is adopted to solve the MCR problems, and extensive numerical and simulation results are presented to validate our theoretical analysis and to illustrate the average covert rate and secrecy rate of UE under various scenarios.