Analysis and Simulation of LoRaWAN LR-FHSS for Direct-to-Satellite Scenario

Long Range-Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (LR-FHSS) has been recently introduced into the LoRaWAN protocol specification to increase network capacity and collision robustness and enable direct connectivity between machine devices and the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. In this letter we first construct the analytical and simulation models for packet delivery over LR-FHSS from ground nodes to a LEO satellite and then use the developed analytic and simulation models to generate the numerical results. Our results reveal the potential feasibility of large-scale networks demonstrate some trade-offs between the two new LR-FHSS-based data rates for the EU region and reveal the key reasons for packet losses.