Analysis and performance optimization of LoRa networks with time and antenna diversity

Low power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies are increasingly catching the attention of the Internet-of-Things market and have brought the need for reliable knowledge about the performance of such networks. This paper is concerned with the performance and scalability of LoRa networks, a leading LPWAN technology. Several recently published articles have analyzed the ability of LoRa networks to scale, i.e., their ability to support increased traffic and number of nodes. This paper proposes to employ message replication and gateways with multiple receive antennas to achieve, respectively, time and spatial diversity. The paper presents the proposed schemes and evaluates them through theoretical analysis and computer simulations. Results show that LoRa networks are highly sensitive to the increase in user and traffic density, but both message replication and multiple antennas can enhance performance. Message replication has an optimum number of message copies for each network configuration, and its utilization is more beneficial in low-density networks, while the use of multiple receive antennas at the gateway is always beneficial.