ADMM-Based Infinity-Norm Detection for Massive MIMO
In this article, we propose a novel data detection algorithm and a corresponding VLSI design for massive multiuser (MU) multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems. Our algorithm uses alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based infinity-norm-constrained equalization and is called ADMIN. ADMIN is an iterative algorithm that outperforms linear detectors by a large margin when the ratio between the numbers of base-station (BS) and user antennas is small. In the first iteration, ADMIN computes the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) solution, which is sufficient when the ratio between the numbers of BS and user antennas is large. We develop time-shared and iterative VLSI architectures for LDL-decomposition-based soft-output ADMIN supporting 16- and 32-user systems. We present application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs for 16–64 antenna base stations in 28-nm CMOS that supports up to 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The 16-user ADMIN ASIC achieves 303 Mb/s while dissipating 85 mW. The 32-user ADMIN ASIC achieves 287 and 241 Mb/s while dissipating 121 and 135 mW for 32 and 64 BS antennas, respectively. ADMIN has also been implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-7 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and is compared with state-of-the-art massive MIMO data detectors.