A non-invasive method for hydration status measurement with a microwave sensor using skin phantoms
Fluid balance is important for a healthy human being. In this paper, a method to measure hydration status was developed and tested towards non-invasive measurement from human skin. Measurement of hydration status was performed by a microwave sensor utilizing a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR). The sensor was modeled, manufactured and then characterized by measuring tailor made skin phantoms based on the realistic electrical properties of skin with different degrees of hydration status. Qualitative longer term (>24 h) evaluation of the sensor was also performed by measuring polyester tissue that was drying over the time. Hydration status, represented by dehydrated, normal and hydrated skin phantoms, based on polyurethane with carbon and ceramic additives, was measured successfully by monitoring the changes in resonance frequency around 5.52 GHz. All results were compared to the dielectric reference measurements done by a commercial laboratory instrument.