A Hybrid Mutual Coupling Reduction Technique in a Dual-Band MIMO Textile Antenna for WBAN and 5G Applications

This paper presents a hybrid mutual coupling reduction technique applied onto a dual-band textile MIMO antenna for wireless body area network and 5G applications. The MIMO antenna consists of two hexagonal patch antennas, each integrated with a split-ring (SR) and a bar slot to operate in dual-band mode at 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz. Each patch is dimensioned at 47.2 × 31 mm². This hybrid technique results in a simple structure, while enabling significant reduction of mutual coupling (MC) between the closely spaced patches (up to 0.1 λ ). This technique combines a line patch and a patch rotation technique, explained as follows. First, a line patch is introduced at an optimized distance to enable operation with a broad impedance bandwidth at both target frequencies. One of the patches is then rotated by 90° at an optimized distance, resulting in a significant MC suppression while maintaining the dual and broad impedance bandwidth. The proposed MIMO antenna is further evaluated under several bending configurations to assess its robustness. A satisfactory agreement between simulated and measured results is observed in both planar and bending conditions. Results show that the MIMO antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 4.3 % and 6.79 % in the 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz band, respectively. Moreover, very low MC ( S₂₁ < −30 dB) is achieved, with a low (< 0.002) envelop correlation coefficient, and about 10 dB of diversity gain at both desired frequencies using this technique. Even when bent at an angle of 50° at the x- and y-axes, the antenna bent maintained a realized gain of 1.878 dBi and 4.027 dBi in the lower and upper band, respectively. A robust performance is offered by the antenna against the lossy effects of the human body with good agreements between simulated and measured results.